Friday, September 11, 2009

Some Acronyms That Nursing Students May Encounter During Clinical Practice

10:36 AM by sarah ·
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Last Tuesday our clinical instructors have given us an assignment to look for the meaning of the acronyms that doctors often use. Nursing students should be able to identify and know these acronyms, in relation to patient's case, especially doctor's hand writings are sometimes unreadable.

So here are some of them that you should know:

Hb (Haemoglobin) - the iron-containing respiratory pigment in red blood cells of vertebrates, consisting of about 6% heme and 94% globin.

MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) - a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins.

IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease) - is also callled myocardial ischaemia, a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). Its risk increases with age, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterol levels), diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure) and is more common in men and those who have close relatives with ischaemic heart disease. In simple term it is a heart problem caused by narrowed heart arteries and is also called coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease.

SOB (Shortness Of Breath) - is also called Dyspnea, is characterized by a feeling that you are unable to breathe enough air, which lead to hurried, franctic breathing or heaving. This can lead to suffocation.

CBI (Continuous Bladder Irrigation) - a continuous infusion of a sterile solution into the bladder, usually by using a three-way irrigation closed system with a triple-lumen catheter. One lumen is used to drain urine; another is used to inflate the catheter balloon, and the final lumen carries the irrigation solution. CBI is primarily used following genitourinary surgery to keep the bladder clear and free of blood clots or sediment.

CBD (Common Bile Duct) - the duct formed by the union of the cyctic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum.

BP (Blood Pressure) - the pressure of the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels, varying in the different parts of the body during different phases of contraction of the heart and under different conditions, exertions, etc.

CCF (Congestive Cardiac Failure) - is also called congestive heart failure, is a disorder where the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently. The result is that the body doesn't get as much oxygen and nutrients as it needs, leading to problems like fatigue and shortness of breath.

IV (Intravenous) - a drug, nutrient solution, o other substances administered into a vein.

NPC (Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma) - is a cancer originating in the nasopharynx, the uppermost region of the pharynx or "throat", where the nasal passages and auditory tubes join the remainder of the upper respiratory tract.

CPOD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) - refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs causing shortness of breath.

IO Chart (Intake and Output Chart) - a record of your food and liquid intake and output.

GIT (Gastrointestinal Tract) - the stomach and intestine - the system of organs within multicellular organisms that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining matter. The major functions of the gastrointestinal tract are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.

I & D (Incision and Drainage) - are minor surgical procedures to release pus or pressure built up under the skin, such as from an abscess, boil, or infected paranasal sinus. It is performed by treating the area with an antiseptic, such as iodine based solution, and then making a small incision to puncture the skin using a sterile instrument such as a sharp needle, a pointed scalpel or a lancet. This allows the pus fluid to escape by draining out through the incision.

TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate) - also known as TURP, plural TURPs and as a transurethral prostatic resection TUPR - is a urological operation. It is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is performed by visualising the prostate through the urethra and removing tissue by electrocautery or sharp dissection. This is considered the most effective treatment for BPH. This procedure is done with spinal or general anesthetic. A large triple lumen catheter is inserted through the urethra to irrigate and drain the bladder after the surgical procedure is complete. Outcome is considered excellent for 80-90% of BPH patients.

PO (Per Orally or by Mouth)

GA (General Anaesthesia) - is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs

LA (Local Anaesthesia) - is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress.

ESRF (End Stage Renal Failure) - also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years.

PRN ( Pre Re Nata) - as the situation arises or take as needed or whenever necessary.

DM (Diabetes Mellitus) - often referred to simply as diabetes—is a condition in which the body does not produce enough, or properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either fails to properly respond to its own insulin, does not make enough insulin, or both. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications.

ECG
(Electrocardiogram) - or EKG is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over time captured and externally recorded by skin electrodes.

MI (Myocardial Infarction)
- or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (like cholesterol) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).

Urine FEME ( Urine Full Microscopic Examination) - is a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection and evaluation of renal and urinary tract disorders and other systemic diseases.

T & S (Toilet and Suture) - the cleaning and stitching of the wound.

TWDC (Total White Differential Count)

C & S (Cultural and Sensitivity)

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